Dr. Anita Singh
Board Certified in Reproductive Endocrinology,
Infertility, Obstetrics and Gynecology

818-889-4532 (4LFC)

Anita Singh


Dr. Singh and the staff at LifeStart Fertility Center has compiled a list of frequently used terms that you will see throughout your treatment and on this website. Please use the following list so you may better understand the procedures and treatments offered.

Aspiration - A method of obtaining eggs by utilizing a needle inserted through the vagina into the ovaries under ultrasound guidance.

Assisted Hatching (AH) - A small opening is made in the outer shell of the embryo to improve the chances of implantation.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) - Used to assist couples in overcoming infertility through the joining of the sperm and egg outside of the body and the transfer of resulting embryos. These procedures include: In Vitro Fertilization, Donor Oocyte IVF, Micromanipulation (ICSI and AH), Cryopreservation of embryos and sperm related procedures.

Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation - The use of medications to stimulate multiple follicular development in the ovaries. This stimulation is called “controlled” because the patient is carefully monitored with ultrasounds and hormonal blood testing.

Cryopreservation - A process that preserves embryos by freezing them for later thaw and implantation.

Egg Donation - For women who lack good quality eggs, have premature ovarian failure or don’t want to risk passing on a known genetic disease. The process takes eggs, usually from a younger woman, fertilizes them with the male’s sperm and places them into the patient’s uterus.

Follicle - The fluid-filled sac in the ovary that has nurtured the egg and from which the egg is released during ovulation or aspiration.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) - A hormone produced and released from the pituitary that stimulates the ovary to ripen a follicle for ovulation. Elevated levels early in the cycle may indicate decreased quality and quantity of the eggs.

Gamete - A generic term referring to either the male sperm or the female oocyte (egg).

Gestational Surrogacy - This is an option for women with viable eggs, but who don’t have a normal uterus or can’t carry a baby for other medical reasons. A woman’s eggs are removed, fertilized with the male’s sperm and the embryos are implanted in a surrogate mother’s uterus.

Hysteroscopy: - A surgical procedure that involves using a special telescope inserted through the cervix to view the uterine cavity.

Infertility - The inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse if less than 35 years of age or six months if older than 35 years of age.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) - This is used when there is male-factor infertility and involves extracting a single sperm and injecting it into an egg while working under a microscope using specialized equipment.

In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfers - In IVF, eggs are extracted from a woman and combined in a laboratory with sperm. Fertilization usually takes place in one day. The resulting embryos are kept in an incubator for three to five days, after which time they are checked for appropriate development, and then transferred into the woman's uterus.

Laparoscopy - A surgical procedure that involves the use of a small special telescope (laparoscope) to view abdominal and pelvic structures including the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes.

Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA) - Used to obtain sperm when a man’s vas deferens is obstructed. This procedure is performed in an operating room. Sperm is extracted from the epididymis through an opening in the skin working under a microscope.

Oocyte - The egg produced in the ovaries.

Ovulation Induction - The stimulation of ovaries to produce eggs.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) - Technique used during In Vitro Fertilization procedures to evaluate the embryos for genetic or chromosomal abnormalities prior to their transfer into the uterus.

Reproductive Endocrinologist - An OB/GYN sub-specialist who has received advanced training (a fellowship) in the treatment of infertility, recurrent miscarriages, and hormonal disorders in women.

Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) - Used to obtain sperm from a testicle for ICSI in cases of azospermia.

Ultrasonography - A radiological procedure performed either transvaginally or abdominally that uses sound waves to assess uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, pelvic masses, pelvic pain, and other gynecologic problems. It is also used to track the development of egg-bearing follicles during ovulation induction.

Zygote - The cell resulting after fertilization of the oocyte by the sperm.

Medical Disclaimer

The information on this website has been provided to you for educational purposes only by LifeStart Fertility Center.  This information is not to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice.  Any link on the LifeStart Fertility Center website does not imply that we endorse any of the products or services listed on these links. 


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